Ethiopia:Jenerali Tsadkan Gebretensae uri inyuma y’urugamba rw’inyeshyamba ni muntuki? haratutumba urugamba sushya!

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Ku nshuro ya kabiri mu buzima bwe, uwahoze ari Jenerali mu ngabo za Ethiopia ari ku isonga ry’inyeshyamba zirwanya leta ya Ethiopia mu karere k’imisozi miremire ka Tigray mu majyaruguru y’icyo gihugu, nkuko byandikwa n’umusesenguzi Alex de Waal.

Jenerali Tsadkan Gebretensae, umukuru w’inyeshyamba zo muri Tigray, afatwa n’abasesenguzi b’umutekano ku rwego mpuzamahanga nk’umwe mu bazi cyane amayeri ya gisirikare bo mu rungano rwe ku mugabane w’Afurika.

Uyu mugabo w’imyaka 68, mu 1976 yahagaritse kwiga ibinyabuzima kuri Kaminuza ya Addis Ababa, yinjira mu mutwe wa Tigray People’s Liberation Front (TPLF).

Icyo gihe, wari umutwe w’abarwanyi babarirwa muri za magana bagaba ibitero-shuma (guerilla), wakoreraga mu misozi urwanya ubutegetsi bushingiye ku mahame ya ‘Marxist’ bwa Mengistu Haile Mariam.

Ubuhanga bwe mu gusesengura no gupanga urugamba ndetse no gushobora gutuma abarwanyi bamwizera, byatumye mu mpera y’imyaka ya 1980 aba umwe mu bakuru b’ibikorwa byo ku rugamba b’uwo mutwe bubashywe cyane.

Mu 1991, TPLF yari yamaze kuba umutwe ukaze ugizwe n’abarwanyi barenga 100,000 ndetse urimo n’amatsinda arwanisha imodoka z’intambara.

Mu kwezi kwa gatanu k’uwo mwaka, Jenerali Tsadkan – hamwe n’ingabo za Eritrea icyo gihe zari zifatanyije na TPLF – yayoboye igitero cyarangiye hafashwe umurwa mukuru Addis Ababa wa Ethiopia, ndetse n’ubutegetsi bwa Mengistu buhiritswe.

Abasirikare batsinzwe ba Ethiopia barimo n'abakomeretse nyuma yuko Mengistu Haile Mariam ahiritswe ku butegetsi
zimwe mu ngabo za Mengistu Haile Mariam zatsinzwe mu myaka 30 ishize

Ubwo abarwanyi ba TPLF binjiraga muri uwo mujyi, babaye bamushakiye ahantu hari umutekano ho gushyira ibiro bikuru bye, mu nzu icumbikira abagenzi yari hafi ya hoteli Hilton.

Aho ni ho hantu Jenerali Tsadkan yongeye kuryama mu buriri burimo amashuka ku nshuro ya mbere nyuma y’imyaka 15 yari ishize.

Aziyoboye, izo nyeshyamba zahise zisubiza ibintu ku murongo mu murwa mukuru wa Ethiopia – zawinjiyemo ku itariki ya 28 y’ukwezi kwa gatanu mu 1991, ndetse amafaranga y’abakozi bari mu kiruhuko cy’izabukuru hamwe n’imishahara y’abakozi ba leta byishyurwa iminsi itatu nyuma yaho.

Igitero ku kigo cya al-Qaeda

Mu myaka irindwi yakurikiyeho, Jenerali Tsadkan yayoboye ibikorwa byo kongera kubaka igisirikare cya Ethiopia. Yahawe ipeti rya Jenerali anagirwa umukuru w’ingabo.

Mu myaka 10 Jenerali Tsadkan yamaze ari umukuru w’ingabo za Ethiopia, abahoze ari abakuru b’abarwanyi ba TPLF bari biganje mu myanya ikomeye mu gisirikare cya Ethiopia.

Bituma anengwa ko igisirikare kidasaranganyijwe mu moko yose, kuko Abanya-Tigray bagize hafi 6% by’abaturage bagera kuri miliyoni 112 batuye iki gihugu.

Jenerali Tsadkan yanasubiye kwiga, yiga mu buryo bw’iyakure amasomo yo gucunga ibikorwa by’ubucuruzi yo ku rwego rwa MBA kuri Kaminuza ya Open University yo mu Bwongereza.

Profeseri Graeme Salaman, uku ni ko yibuka uyu wari umunyeshuri we: “Asa nk’urenze ishusho yuko umusirikare mukuru abonwa muri rusange – aratuje, aratekereza cyane, atega amatwi, asa nk’ugira isoni, yumva ibitekerezo by’abandi bantu – ariko birumvikana imbere muri we arakaze”.
Imisozi ya Gheralta, hafi y'umujyi wa Hawzen, mu burasirazuba bwa Tigray. Ifoto yafatiwe ku gasongero k'umwe mu misozi ikikije imisozi ya Gheralta
Imisozi yo muri Tigray itanga ubwihisho bwiza ku nyeshyamba zishaka ku hihisha

Intambara ishobora kuba yari yarangiye mu gihugu, ariko hari hakiri akaduruvayo muri aka karere ko mu ihembe ry’Afurika.

Mu 1996, yohereje ingabo gutera ikigo cy’umutwe wa al-Qaeda muri Somalia, ndetse yohereza ingabo mu ibanga hakurya y’umupaka muri Sudan gushyigikira abarwanyaga uwari Perezida Omar al-Bashir.

Yirukanwe mu gisirikare

Kuburira kwa Jenerali Tsadkan ko Perezida wa Eritrea Isaias Afwerki yari ateje inkeke kuri Ethiopia, ntabwo kwitaweho na mugenzi we wo muri TPLF, uwari Minisitiri w’intebe Meles Zenawi.

Ariko mu ntambara na Eritrea yatangiye mu 1998, Jenerali Tsadkan ni we wateguraga ibijyanye n’urugamba.

Yabaye intambara yarwanywe mu buryo busanzwe (butandukanye n’ibitero-shuma) yaguyemo abantu bagera ku 80,000 bo ku mpande zombi zarwanaga.

Mu kwezi kwa gatandatu mu 2000, igitero cy’ingabo za Ethiopia cyashenye ibirindiro by’ingabo za Eritrea, nuko ingabo za Ethiopia zikwira hakurya y’umupaka.

Jenerali Tsadkan yashakaga gukomeza kurwana kugeza ku murwa mukuru Asmara wa Eritrea, ariko Minisitiri w’intebe Meles amutegeka kurekera aho, avuga ko intego z’intambara ya Ethiopia zagezweho, kandi ko Eritrea yacishijwe bugufi

Ikarita igaragaza Eritrea na Ethiopia

Nyuma y’intambara, TPLF yacitsemo ibice kubera kutumvikana ku byari bigamijwe mu ntambara ndetse no ku cyerezo cya politiki y’ishyaka. Bwana Meles yirukanye Jenerali Tsadkan ku mwanya w’umukuru w’ingabo.

Nk’umuntu ukuwe ku kazi mu buryo bwihuse kandi butunguranye, mu mwuga wari wararanze ubuzima bwe, agahabwa akato n’abakuru ba TPLF, ndetse agacungirwa hafi na ba maneko, Jenerali Tsadkan yagowe no kuba mu buzima nk’umuturage usanzwe.

Yanditse raporo ku kuntu ingabo z’ibihugu zishobora kurwanya SIDA (HIV/AIDS). Yahawe akazi n’ikigo cy’Ubwongereza cy’iterambere mpuzamahanga ngo agire inama leta nshya ya Sudan y’epfo ku bijyanye n’amavugurura mu rwego rw’umutekano – umushinga wananiwe kugira ikinyamwuga igisirikare cy’icyo gihugu.

Jenerali Tsadkan yatangije uruganda rwenga inzoga mu karere avukamo ka Raya, mu majyepfo ya Tigray, anatangira ubucuruzi bushingiye ku buhinzi bw’indabo, imboga n’imbuto.

Kwangwa kw’Abanya-Tigray

Yanenzwe n’abo bahoranye mu buyobozi bwa TPLF ubwo mu 2018 yishimiraga ko Abiy Ahmed yagizwe Minisitiri w’intebe, akavuga ko yiteguye gukorana na we.

Jenerali Tsadkan Gebretensae
Jenerali Tsadkan ashinjwa ubugambanyi na leta ya Ethiopia
Uwo ni Tsadkan uri hagati, mu mwaka bishoboka ko ari mu 1988
Jenerali Tsadkan (uri hagati) yarwanyije leta ya Ethiopia bwa mbere kuva mu mwaka wa 1976 kugeza mu 1991–IFOTO YATANZWE N’UMURYANGO WA TSADKAN

Mu 2019, yagiye mu itsinda ryageragezaga guhuza Bwana Abiy n’abakuru ba TPLF, ariko yarivuyemo mu mwaka ushize, avuga ko Bwana Abiy utamenya ibye (adashobotse).

Ubwo mu murwa mukuru Addis Ababa wa Ethiopia hakomezaga kwiyongera kwangwa kw’Abanya-Tigray, yasubiye mu murwa mukuru Mekelle wa Tigray.

Ubwo mu kwezi kwa cumi na kumwe mu 2020 intambara yatangiraga muri Tigray, yagiye mu barwanya ingabo za leta ya Ethiopia, ashyira ku ruhande ibyo atumvikanagaho n’abandi bategetsi bo muri Tigray.

Urubyiruko rwitabiriye ku bwinshi kujya muri uwo mutwe, rutewe ubwoba n’ubwicanyi bwakorewe benewabo bo muri Tigray. Abandi ba sekombata (bari bararwanye izindi ntambara) na bo binjira muri uwo mutwe, barimo n’abari bamaze imyaka baravuye muri TPLF.

Ku ruhande rwayo, leta ya Ethiopia yashyizeho impapuro zo guta muri yombi Jenerali Tsdakan n’abandi bategetsi bo muri Tigray. Yabashinje ubugambanyi, ivuga ko batangije intambara bategura igitero ku bigo by’ingabo za Ethiopia muri Tigray.

Umusaruro ukomeye kandi utangaje mu gisirikare

Guhangana n’ingabo za leta ya Ethiopia byahurijwe mu mutwe Tigray Defence Forces (TDF), uhuriwemo n’abo muri TPLF n’abatari muri TPLF.

Jenerali Tsadkan yarazamuwe ashyirwa mu buyobozi bukuru bw’uwo mutwe ndetse ahabwa inshingano zo kuyobora ibikorwa bya gisirikare.

Abagore bari mu cyunamo cy'abavugwa ko bishwe n'ingabo za Eritrea mu cyaro cya Dengolat, mu majyaruguru ya Mekelle, umurwa mukuru wa Tigray, ku itariki ya 26 y'ukwezi kwa kabiri mu 2021.
Abantu babarirwa mu bihumbi batangazwa ko biciwe mu mirwano y’impande zombi

Mu kwezi kwa mbere, yagize ati: “Turimo kwicwa“. Icyo gihe bari barimo guhunga, bacengezwa mu misozi yo mu majyepfo ya Tigray, benshi mu rubyiruko rwo muri uwo mutwe nta nkweto bambaye, bafite gusa imbunda bashoboye guhungana mu ntoki.

Ariko bashoboye gusenya uburyo bari bagoswemo, batungura ingabo za Ethiopia n’iza Eritrea kubera uburyo bukarishye bagabyemo igitero cyo kuzigaranzura. Jenerali Tsadkan ntabwo azakubwira umubare w’abarwanyi ba TDF bishwe cyangwa bakomeretse.

Mu gihe cy’amezi ane bari bari mu myitozo, bisuganya ari na ko barwana kugeza ubwo, mu kwezi kwa gatanu, Jenerali Tsadkan n’abakuru b’inyeshyamba bagenzi be, bagereranyije ko noneho bari bamaze kugera ku rugero rungana n’urw’abo barwana na bo.

Mu byumweru bitatu bishize, itsinda ry’ibihugu bikize ku isi rizwi nka G7, ryasabye ko hatangwa agahenge kugira ngo imfashanyo ishobore gutangwa muri Tigray. TPLF yasohoye itangazo, ivuga ko yiteguye gutanga imfashanyo – ntiyavuga ku gahenge.

Nuko ku itariki ya 17 y’ukwezi kwa gatandatu, TDF iriyemeza. Ivuga ko mu rukurikirane rw’ibitero, yisubije aho yari yatswe ndetse yirukana imitwe (divisions) umunani y’ingabo za Ethiopia – ingana na kimwe cya kabiri cy’ubushozi bwo kurwana bwazo. Igisirikare cya Ethiopia cyabyamaganye kivuga ko ari “amakuru y’ibinyoma“.

Abanyamakuru ntabwo barashobora kugera ahabereye imirwano cyangwa kuganira n’imfungwa zo mu ntambara.

Ariko bisa nkaho cyabaye igikorwa cya gisirikare gikomeye kandi cyatanze umusaruro utangaje cyakozwe na TDF bacye bari biteze, kandi ingabo za Ethiopia bisa nkaho zahatakarije cyane.

Hari ubwoba ko barwana na Eritrea

Umutwe wa TDF winjiye i Mekelle, ndetse ubutegetsi bwa leta ya Ethiopia bwari buhari n’ingabo zayo barahunze – batangaza agahenge.

TDF, ifite intwaro nyinshi yafashe, ubu ihanganye n’ingabo za Eritrea, zinjiye mu ntambara mu kwezi kwa cumi na kumwe mu 2020, ku ruhande rw’ingabo za Ethiopia.

Ni umwanzi ukomeye kurushaho kandi igisirikare cyayo kiracyari muryerye (ntikiragira ikigishegesha). Amakuru agaragaza ko cyataye imijyi cyari kirimo mu majyaruguru ya Tigray, ndetse kikaba cyarateguye imirongo y’ubwirinzi hafi y’umupaka.

Perezida wa Eritrea Isaias ahanzwe no gufata icyemezo niba yacyura ingabo ze zikava aho mu majyaruguru cyangwa niba yarwana, ariko TDF na yo ishobora kumufasha muri ayo mahitamo kubera ko yo ibona ko idashobora gutekana mu gihe cyose Bwana Isaias akiri ku butegetsi.

Ni yo mpamvu rero bishoboka ko hari urundi rugamba rushobora kuba ruri hafi kwambikana.

Alex de Waal ni umukuru w’ikigo World Peace Foundation cyo ku ishuri Fletcher ryigisha amategeko na dipolomasi (Fletcher School of Law and Diplomacy) kuri Kaminuza ya Tufts muri Amerika.

BBC

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